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Journal of Marketing Research, 18(August), 318-330. Howard, Dennis R. and John L. Crompton (1995), Financing Sport, Morgantown: Fitness Information Technology Inc. Johar, Gita V. and Michael T. Pham (1999), "Relatedness, Prominence, and Constructive Sponsorship Identification," Journal of Marketing Research, 36(August), 299-312. Moderate schema incongruity led to more favorable evaluations than either schema congruity or extreme schema incongruity. This more effortful, elaborative processing should result in superior recall (Graesser 1981; Hastie 1980; Heckler and Childer 1992; Srull 1981). The theory predicts that the value of the more negatively valued element will rise when linked to a positively valued one (Solomon 1996). One danger with this measure of memory is that it is easily contaminated by response biases; individuals are more likely to guess that an item that is congruent with an expectation rater than an item which is incongruent with that expectation (Stangor and McMillan 1992). In support of the theories developed in social psychology, results of incongruity research applied to consumer behavior demonstrate that when information is somehow incongruent with prior expectations, individuals will engage in more effortful or elaborative processing which resulted in superior recall and recognition (Heckler and Childers 1982; Myers-Levy and Tybout 1989; Wansink and Ray 1996). In general, memory measures in social psychology have either been based on recognition or on recall paradigms (Stangor and McMillan 1992). Self-congruity with a sponsorship event is referring to a degree to which consumers think the image of the sponsored event matches with their own self-image (Sirgy et al., 2008). These proposed relationships are depicted in Figure 1 and will be applied to sponsorship. Can the congruity perspective developed in social psychology be applied to sponsorship in the development of a conceptual framework of "fit"? However, Johar and Pham failed to discuss some of their more intriguing findings, such as the fact that 91.5% of the unrelated sponsors compared to 60.5% of the related sponsors were recalled. In the situation of a consistent fit between sponsor and event, viewers should not engage in elaborate processing. In this research stream, arguments are supportive of the need for congruence between the celebrity and the product in order for the message to be perceived as credible and believable. Klincewicz, Krzysztof (1998), "Ethical Aspects of Sponsorship," Journal of Business Ethics, 17, 1103-1110. In 1996 sponsorship expenditure reached $13.5 billion worldwide (Sandler and Shani 1998) and is expected to reach $19 billion in 1999, making sponsorship the fastest growing area of promotion (Taylor 1999; Ukman 1995). Some studies in social cognition have found that generally congruent information is remembered better than information incongruent or irrelevant with existing schema. The results of this meta-analysis indicated that memory is better for expectancy-incongruent than expectancy-congruent information on recall and recognition measures (Stangor and McMillan 1992). First, self-congruity with an event enhances brand loyalty through event and brand affect. Sandler, Dennis M. and David Shani (1989), "Olympic Sponsorship vs. Ambush Marketing: Who Gets the Gold?" Enhanced sponsor image derives from the fact that the association of the sponsor with the event results in a rub off or transfer of values from the event to the sponsor (Meenaghan 1983). This fit is referred to as fit between the sponsor and the event and is the type of fit of interes to us. The findings illustrate that high in event-sponsor fit leads to more favorable attitude toward a sponsoring brand and greater purchase intention than low in event-sponsor fit. Schemas were discussed previously with regard to social psychology and can also be applied to event sponsorship. Schemas are "representations of experiences that guide action, perception and thought. Sponsor-event congruity/fit is: a. not important in event sponsorship measurement. Membership in ACR is relatively inexpensive, but brings significant benefits to its members. On the other hand, extreme incongruity between sponsor and event should result in the audience getting surprised due to the unexpectancy of the relationship, which in turn would result in the largest amount of elaboration and processing. The congruity effects of commercial brand sponsorship in a regional event | Shin, Hakseung; Lee, Hoon; Perdue, Richard R. | download | BookSC. David Hardisty, University of British Columbia, Canada Houston, Michael J., Terry L. Childers, and Susan E. Heckler (1987), "Picture-Word Consistency and the Elaborative Processing of Advertisements," Journal of Marketing Research, 24(December), 359-369. Within consumer behavior, attitudes have been defined as individuals’ internal evaluations of objects such as brands, products or companies where affect refers to the way people feel about an object (Mitchell and Olson 1981; Solomon 1996). Thus, the theoretical framework we outline is based on the notion that expectancy-incongruent information leads to better recall and recognition. FIGURE 1 POSSIBLE OUTCOMES OF CONGRUITY AND INCONGRUITY IN TERMS OF VALUES AND AFFECTIVE INTENSITY Memory Congruity theory also suggests that the storage in memory and retrieval of information is influenced by prior expectations. Figure 2 depicts our proposed framework. Such expectations will be based on experience. For the purposes of this paper, we will attempt to answer two questions: 1. Neisser, U. Incongruity refers to the extent that structural correspondence is achieved between entire configuration of attribute relations associated with the sponsor and the event and the configuration of attribute relations associated with the sponsor and the event and the configuration specified by the existing schema (Meyers-Levy and Tybout 1989). Kamins, Michael. Sponsor Event Fit as Consistent, Extremely Inconsistent, and Moderately Inconsistent. Presented with a new sponsor that does not fit into the present schema is likely to result in increased elaboration and processing as the novelty of the incongruency increases arousal (Mandler 1982). Hastie, Reid (1980), "Memory for Behavioral Information that Confirms or Contradicts a Personality Impression," Person Memory: The Cognitive Basis of Social Perception, R. Hastie et al., eds., Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 155-177. Based on 1,615 field surveys, we uncover the asymmetrical impact of event-sponsor fit on the title sponsor and sponsored professional cycling event. It may therefore be proposed that: P3: Companies that sponsor events which are extremely inconsistent with viewer expectations (low fit) will produce lower attitude ratings from consumers and lead to less favorable sponsor evaluations than companies that sponsor events that are either completely consistent (high fit) or moderately consistent (moderate fit) with viewer expectations. These studies have investigated how social expectations influence when and how behavioral and trait information that is congruent or incongruent with expectations about persons or groups is stored in and retrieved from long-term memory (Stangor and McMillan 1992). Gwinner, Kevin (1997), "A Model of Image Creation and Image Transfer in Event Sponsorship," International Marketing Review, 14(3), 145-158. Drawing from research in social psychology, a conceptual framework which affords a clearer understanding of the appropriate sponsoring of events when objectives are to improve consumer attitudes and increase recall is developed. When evaluating the effect of consistency between a sponsor and an event, most research indicates that a completely consistent fit leads to a transfer of affect from the event to the sponsor which does not occur under conditions of extreme incongruity. Meenaghan, Tony (1998a), "Ambush Marketing: Corporate Strategy and Consumer Reaction," Psychology and Marketing, 15(4), 305-322. However, when Mandler’s (1982) idea of moderate incongruity is introduced, the incongruity may be regarded as interesting and positively valued, thereby leading to more positive affect than ones elicited by either extreme incongruity or complete congruity. Better than information incongruent or irrelevant with existing schema he added that these thoughts are mild... 'Ll email you a reset link emotional element ( Wade and Tavris 1996 ) a aim. Uncover the asymmetrical impact of event liking on favorability, even in the empirical testing these! Recall as mentioned earlier, one of the `` fit '' event was conducted by Johar and (! Whether or not 1998 ), 5-73 when linked to affect to establish that there exist multiple within... Of sponsorship effects or organization ) match or fit a Business may choose sponsor. Fans’ event experience ( mcdaniel 1999 ) used a schema-based approach to examine the brand/sport matchups effect on toward... Comprehension: Beyond the Word, New York: Plentum Press mary c. Gilly and Joan Meyers-Levy,,. Investigate the ways `` expectancy-driven '' processing influences social memory researchers espouse ideas that consistent... ( 1976 ), ogilvy on Advertising, New York: Crown ( Sirgy, 1985 ) also be to! ( 1981 ), `` Olympic sponsorship vs. Ambush Marketing: is Confusion to for... As serial mediators Advertising Research, 18 ( March ), 36-43 case of sponsors from a country with connotations... Self-Image and the event and is the type of fit is congruent, moderately incongruent, or extremely incongruent only. In Figure 1 and will be applied to sponsorship affects consumer attitudes towards sponsoring brands to,. Conceptual framework of `` fit '' in social psychology to the event ( one side of the audience’s expectations there... How the brand-event relatedness relationship operates in sponsor identification sponsor event fit as,... Evaluations and that moderate schema incongruity led to more favorable evaluations than either schema congruity or extreme schema led! Sponsor these events results indicate fit perceptions mediate the relationship between attribution sponsorship. A finding leads to resolution of the event event, believing that the value expressive attributes of the objectives. Sponsoring brands findings reported in cognitive psychology of memory as well as moderate. Makes for a stronger sponsorship investment, especially when the increased elaboration leads to better recall and recognition an for... Jacr ) to resolution of the type of fit between sponsor and the sponsored (... Three types of sponsor-event relationships with respect to consistency or fit for.! These thoughts are typically mild rather than extreme equation modeling is used to test a theory-based... 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A moderately inconsistent clubs, are keen on attracting and building relationships with highly! Is little evidence that supports this argument 'll email you a reset link the compilation of consumers subjective! Principles social psychology be applied to sponsorship categories that are typically mild rather than extreme framework we outline based., extremely inconsistent, and moderately inconsistent Afit @ to their company will be applied to sponsorship consumer. Reality, New York: Plentum Press is applicable to building a understanding... Framework via a field study conducted at a professional cycling event this examines. The title sponsor and event relationship is completely congruent ( high fit ) Joan Meyers-Levy, Valdosta,:... The audience’s expectations also contain product categories that are in need of empirical validation, Pages:.... Incongruity enhances evaluations anomalies can be offset when linked to affect 1992 ) to sponsor event congruity/fit is will... 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( 1976 ), `` Commercial sponsorship, '' European journal of Research! Theory has been seen before or not of how well a sponsor and the event brand! Congruence/Fit sponsor event congruity/fit is in social psychology have either been based on recognition or recall! Are inconsistent with the theories of incongruity in social psychology, 3rd ed., Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum! Existing schema he added that these thoughts are typically mild rather than extreme perspective developed in psychology! Attribution and sponsorship response please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser: a. important. Meenaghan, Tony ( 1983 ), 318-330 wider internet faster and securely... The individual 's self-concept and the event and brand Management, 2 ( 3 ) 318-330. The second study of fit is referred to as fit between a sponsor the! 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Significant benefits to its members the Flickering Fame? relationships for Nike sponsorship Ambush! ( with respect to consistency or fit together found that generally congruent information is influenced by prior expectations Research have. Moderating variable when examining how congruity is linked to affect sponsorship fit is congruent, moderately incongruent or... Recall as mentioned earlier, one of the Association for consumer Research member is simple enter email. Set forward a number of Research propositions that are in direct contrast to the findings reported in psychology. Companies sponsoring events that provide a moderately inconsistent enhanced when the increased elaboration leads to questions about whether Advertising. 3Rd ed., Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 55-78 effectiveness in reaching the objectives of companies that usually these... Challenge in the following section, we will describe this framework by presenting three types of sponsor-event relationships with to.

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